Propolis, otherwise known as bee glue, is a sticky, balsamic-resinous substance that color is light blue-greenish to dark brown. Bees produce propolis from resin contained in stomas of the cortex of trees, and from the bud’s tarry, balsamic substances in some shrubs and trees.
In Greek, the word ‘propolis’ means ‘city outpost’. It is used by bees to cover any internal components of the hive. Bees use it both to strengthen the structure, as well as sealing and protecting the interior of the hives from the development of microorganisms. It is used as a binder for attaching the patch to the wall frames and as am interior disinfectant remedy for cells in patches before laying new eggs.
Propolis is a combination of various biologically active substances. Extracted hundreds of substances contained in propolis, which can include: flavonoids, alcophenols, ketophenols, aromatic esters, phenolic acids, coumarins, sesquiterpenes, lipid and wax substances, microelements, vitamins and protein compounds.
The sum of all the components of propolis, affects its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoal, anesthetics, anti-inflammatory and regenerating properties.
Due to these properties propolis is commonly used in ailments of the digestive system, urinary tract, reproductive system, upper respiratory tract diseases, stomatology, burns, blisters and frostbites. In addition, the pharmacological properties of the bee glue allow for its use in the pressure control, treatment of peptic ulcers, strengthening the secretion of bile, liver detoxification and local anaesthesia.
Propolis is used in the form of alcoholic extracts, raw material extracted in an bee yards and ointments.
Properties of propolis:
- anticancer activity,
- antibacterial properties,
- anti-inflammatory properties,
- anti-fungal properties,
- anti-viral properties,
- anti-protozoal properties,
- anesthetic properties,
- regenerating properties,
- antiseptic properties,
- antioxidant activity,
- strengthens the immune system,
- and is a source of vitamins and minerals.